Friday, July 3, 2020

Metal Matrix Composite Research Assignment Paper - 3300 Words

Metal Matrix Composite Research Assignment Paper (Essay Sample) Content: Metal Matrix CompositeNameInstitutionAbstractThe existing raw materials are wearing off in nature and even those that exist in abundance are losing their interest to engineers. This is because engineers are moving to better attractive materials that suit their purpose. These materials are inclusive of metal matrix composite. In particular, applications of MMCs, this article highlights the automobile field, power electronics, tank armors and cutting tools. MMCs are compared to other materials in terms of their properties and production processes. An analysis on the experiment carried out to select the best material for brake disc have been done on this booklet and it proves that MMCs are good materials for that application.IntroductionMetal matrix composite is a material in which a metal is combined with another, either metallic or nonmetallic material, phases to produce a composite metal with specific desired mechanical and metallurgical properties. It consists of a metal matrix reinforced by a second phase such as particles of ceramics and fibers of various materials, including other ceramics, metals, boron and carbon. These types of additives phases used will make the metal matrix composite to be classified into cermet or fiber-reinforced metallic matrix composites and continuous reinforcement metallic matrix.Cermet is a composite in which ceramic is used as the second phase in combination with the metal to form a metallic matrix. Ceramic forms the main phase of the mixture ranging up to ninety-six percent by volume. Cermet is divided further into cemented carbide and oxide-based cermet. Concreted carbides are encompassed of carbide combined with a metallic matrix. The most common type is tungsten carbide and chromium carbide. The major metallic bounders are nickel used for chromium carbide and cobalt for tungsten carbide, produced by particulate processing techniques. CITATION Gro \p 50 \l 1033 (Groover, p. 50)According to CITATION Gro \l 1 033 (Groover)fiber-reinforced metallic matrix composites combine the high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of a fiber with metals of low density. The combinations helps in achieving a good strength-to-weight and modulus-to-weight ratios in the metal matrix composite formed. The metals used with low density are titanium and aluminum for example, whereas those sued for fiber are oxide of aluminum, carbon fibers and silicon just to mention a few. CITATION Joh \l 1033 (Kerns Colella, 2008).Thirdly, continuous reinforcement include magnesium composite, filament wound, carbon fiber and woven carbon fiber cloth reinforced aluminum alloys. Three or more constituents can form the metal matrix in order to improve the properties further. This kind of metal composite is referred to as hybrid composite metal matrix. The reinforcement materials and alloy mixtures can vary regarding to the applications and the suppliers of this materials do specify this specifications.Generally, metal matrix composites are light in weight but have good mechanical properties that make them high performance materials, thereby attracting industrial applications. The structural and functional of these materials can be can be altered to meet the specific industrial application. For instance, these materials are easy to machine and attracts the application of new technologies like Hybrid electric discharge machining process. This makes the metal matrix composite materials to exhibits higher capability for machining complex shapes with highest precision and accuracy. CITATION Ade11 \l 1033 (Adebisi, Maleque, Rahman, 2011).The metallic part of the metal matrix composite, such as copper and aluminum, provides the toughness, which prevent the early failure and crack formation and propagation. Whereas, the nonmetallic part like ceramics, provides the hardness, oxidation resistance and erosion resistance properties into the composite. It also provides high thermal conductivity, which incre ase the life of the tools.Metal Matrix Composite PropertiesWhen an additive of different phase is added to a metal, it imparts its properties like softening, hardening, toughening and strengthening among others. For MMC, ceramics are usually added to the metal phase to alter the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of metals, in order to meet the specifically required property. The additives alter the metallurgical organizations of the grains hence changing their behavior. Some of the properties selected for this research include the high thermal deformation resistance, low fatigue resistance, high strength, fires resistance and no moisture absorptions. Some of the reinforcing materials mechanical properties are illustrated in the table below:Table 1: illustrates the various reinforcing materials used in MMC and the corresponding properties. These properties will be reflected on the matrix of the composites formed.CITATION Mar06 \p 186 \l 1033 (Martin, 2006, p. 186) .Fatigu e: When MMC are subjected to fluctuating stresses and strains, they resist fracture. To counter this limitation of a metal, a material phase that is fatigue resistant is introduced into the metal matrix, which imparts its properties in the process thereby forming an improved metal alloy.Application of Metal Matrix CompositeThey are used as a cutting tool. Cutting tools require special properties such as better hardness, high strength, wear resistance, toughness and ability to retards grain growth for better toughness. These properties are inflicted into the metal tool by the addition of a second phase material like a ceramic or carbides and others. Tungsten carbide is an example of normal cutting. Tungsten is used to increase hot hardness and stability of the tool at high temperatures, while the addition of carbon imparts the abrasion and self-lubricating properties. At very high temperatures of up to six hundred degrees Celsius, tungsten carbide decomposes to carbon and tungsten and these constituents are prone to oxidation. Fortunately, the cutting tool rarely reaches this high temperature, because it is used for cutting specific components that cannot raise temperatures to that quantity.In automotive engineering, metal matrix composites are applied in making the brake discs. The commonly used MMC is the aluminum. CITATION Ade11 \l 1033 (Adebisi, Maleque, Rahman, 2011). The aluminum MMC have become the most used materials for brake disc as compared to conventional materials. This is because it is light in weight, easy to machine and process thus making it cheaper, and a higher performance brake rotor can be achieved from this composite Aluminum MMC is produced by air casting techniques, that is of major advantageous as compared to conventional techniques. It is a sustainable method that is competitive in comparison to other techniques, easy to operate and do not eat out the quality of brake disc. CITATION MAM10 \l 1033 (M.A. Maleque, 2010)Some of the ma terial properties desired for a brake disc is illustrated in the table below.Table 2: This table shows the MMCs with their corresponding mechanical properties as applied to the automobiles brakes. CITATION MAM10 \l 1033 (M.A. Maleque, 2010)Dymalloy has been used in the power electronics applications. Dymalloy is a metal matrix composite having twenty percent copper and eighty percent silver alloy matrices. Dymalloy has been used in high power packaging having been developed as substrate materials. The main merit of this material is that it has high thermal conductivity, that is approximately double that of the present substrate materials and has a coefficient of thermal expansion that is adjustable to suit the conditions required. All of the above properties are better as compared to the conventional materials like silicon and gallium arsenide. CITATION Joh \l 1033 (Kerns Colella, 2008)Among other applications of MMC, boron nitride for instance is used in tank armors. Boron nitr ide is comparable to diamond in terms of its hardness and is used in making bulletproofs and tank armors because of this major property. It has a Mohs hardness of about 9.5, has a good resistance to acid, refractory and chemically inert but less resistance to oxidation as compared to silicon. These are the main properties that are obtained by combinations of boron metal and other nonmetals, which impart their features in the boron for better mechanical applications like tank armors.Production of MMCsSince MMCs can be categorized into those in which metallic matrix are introduced in a solid , particulate form and those in which the metal is melted, it means solid state, liquid state and semi-solid state manufacturing processes are applicable. Hot isostatic pressing, liquid metal techniques, powder metallurgy are the process that can be applied to MMCs materials. CITATION Mar06 \l 1033 (Martin, 2006)Powder metallurgy is where conventional powder metallurgical techniques is applied i n the manufacture of MMCs. Individual phases are mixed together in particulate form, and therefore, the homogeneously mixed powder are pressed in an appropriate mould, forming green compact, to form the shape required. Then the compacted component is sintered at elevated temperatures under pressure to form the final, dense composite. The cutting tools such as tungsten carbide are usually produced by this method. CITATION Mar06 \l 1033 (Martin, 2006)Hot isostatic squeezing of MM composite is connected to materials contained in emptied jars. Last densification is more often than not by hot extrusion. It is utilized to counter the issue forced by sub-micron particles blended with metal powders by typical powder metallurgical strategies, which makes the particles to tend to group together with a weighty misfortune in properties. The uniform scattering of fine particles are accomplished all the mo...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Persuasive Essay Topics for Grade 8 - the Story

Persuasive Essay Topics for Grade 8 - the Story Lies You've Been Told About Persuasive Essay Topics for Grade 8 The big distinction is that the argumentative essay should demonstrate a discussion rather than a single opinion. Having selected a superior topic to argue about, at this point you will need to make an argumentative essay outline. Before actually beginning to compose your essay, you have to choose an issue to write about. Read and analyze some persuasive essay examples to find out more in regards to the structure and vocabulary employed within this sort of essay. You will need to set up facts, possess the confidence and demonstrate the very clear evidence of your private viewpoint to certain phenomenon. Domestic terrorism isn't really an overwhelming issue in the usa. Students are accustomed to the simple fact which their professors give them with the assignment's topic. They should be careful about posting on social media. They should be allowed to pray in school. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. Year round school isn't a good idea. Many students come online to discover persuasive essay topics for higher english simply to pick specific topics and begin writing about them. Once you are able to accomplish this, you're promised a great grade. School tests aren't effective. The Persuasive Essay Topics for Grade 8 Game BUN tests should be done a specific way. It won't be any different than every other blood test you've received. Yearly driving tests ought to be mandatory for the initial five years after obtaining a license. They should be mandatory over a certain age. Prior exposure or knowledge about a specific subject provides better hindsight that may bring improved arguments on the issue. At least, you should attempt to insist on the distinctive measures to raise the security of people around. You should have all pieces of the test under control before you demonstrate your skills in their entire entirety. The demand for completely free public Wi-Fi. Schools should not have anything to do with ads. Biological weapons shouldn't be allowed. Every American should learn how to speak Spanish. He should learn to speak English. On the opposite side, acquiring a list of good persuasive essay topics is inadequate. Select the period of life which you think is best and compose an essay arguing why it's the ideal time of life. In such cases, you don't need to choose topics that require a great deal of research and preparation. Learn which of the topics, you currently have a fairly good background on which will make it possible for you to have a relative edge. It is going to also prepare you for the writing and you'll save yourself time when writing as you are not going to have to stop simply to make sure if a point is right or wrong. There are just a few things that define whether an essay you're working on is going to be a good one. Another good idea is to receive some absolutely free essay examples of different kinds and on various subjects to find a general idea of the way in which a prosperous debatable paper looks. There are instances when you're requested to deliver a persuasive speech in a short time period. Breastfeeding should be permitted in public places. Problems related to drugs are quite contradictive. A trusted writing services company may assist you with all that. Though people believe education is a correct and will make society, overall, a better place for everybody, others feel there's no real way to provide a free college education as colleges would still have to be funded (likely through tax dollars). If you ar e searching for top essay writing companies, try out the mentioned above. There are lots of essay writing services that think they're the very best, and therefore don't be cheated and check the real collection of the very best. The list you'll find here is not aiming high merely to persuade people who you're right. Our customer support will gladly tell you whether there are any special offers at the present time, in addition to make sure you are getting the very best service our company may deliver. Thus, it's the ideal choice to purchase from the stores immediately. A minumum of one parent should work at home.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Spinner Shark Facts (Carcharhinus brevipinna)

The spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) is a type of requiem shark. It is a live-bearing, migratory shark found in warm ocean waters. Spinner sharks get their name from their interesting feeding strategy, which involves spinning through a school of fish, snapping them up, and often leaping into the air. Fast Facts: Spinner Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus brevipinnaDistinguishing Features: Slender shark with long snout, black-tipped fins, and habit of spinning through water when feeding.Average Size: 2 m (6.6 ft) length; 56 kg (123 lb) weightDiet: CarnivorousLife Span: 15 to 20 yearsHabitat: Coastal waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian OceansConservation Status: Near ThreatenedKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: ChondrichthyesOrder: CarcharhiniformesFamily: CarcharhinidaeFun Fact: Spinner sharks dont eat humans, but will bite if they are excited by other food. Description The spinner shark has a long and pointed snout, slender body, and relatively small first dorsal fin. Adults have black-tipped fins that look as though they were dipped in ink. The upper body is gray or bronze, while the lower body is white. On average, adults are 2 m (6.6 ft) long and weigh 56 kg (123 lb). The largest recorded specimen was 3 m (9.8 ft) long and weighed 90 kg (200 lb). Spinner shark. Spinner sharks and blacktip sharks are commonly confused with each other. The spinner has a slightly more triangular dorsal fin that is further back on the body. An adult spinner shark also has a distinctive black tip on its anal fin. However, juveniles lack this marking and the two species share similar behaviors, so its difficult to tell them apart. Distribution Due to difficulty distinguishing between blacktip and spinner sharks, the spinners distribution is uncertain. It can be found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, with the exception of the eastern Pacific. The species prefers warm coastal water that is less than 30 m (98 ft) deep, but some subpopulations migrate into deeper water. Spinner shark distribution. Chris_huh Diet and Predators Bony fishes are the staple of the spinner sharks diet. The sharks also eat octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and stingrays. The sharks teeth are made for grabbing prey rather than cutting it. A group of spinner sharks chases a school of fish then charges it from below. A spinning shark snaps up fish whole, often carrying enough momentum to leap into the air. Blacktip sharks also employ this hunting technique, although it is less common. Humans are the spinner sharks primary predator, but spinner sharks are also eaten by larger sharks. Reproduction and Life Cycle Spinner sharks and other requiem sharks are viviparous. Mating occurs from spring to summer. The female has two uteri, which are divided into compartments for each embryo. Initially, each embryo lives off its yolk sac. The yolk sac forms a placental connection with the female, which then provides nutrients until the pups are born. Gestation lasts from 11 to 15 months. Mature females give birth to 3 to 20 pups every other year. Spinner sharks start reproducing between the ages of 12 and 14 and can live until they are 15 to 20 years old. Spinner Sharks and Humans Spinner sharks dont eat large mammals, so bites from this species are uncommon and not fatal. The fish will bite if provoked or excited during a feeding frenzy. As of 2008, a total of 16 unprovoked bites and one provoked attack were attributed to spinner sharks. The shark is valued in sport fishing for the challenge it presents as it leaps from the water. Commercial fishermen sell the fresh or salted meat for food, the fins for shark fin soup, the skin for leather, and the liver for its vitamin-rich oil. Conservation Status The IUCN classifies the spinner shark as near threatened worldwide and vulnerable along the southeastern United States. The number of sharks and the population trend is unknown, mainly because spinner sharks are so often confused with other requiem sharks. Because spinner sharks live along highly populated coasts, they are subject to pollution, habitat encroachment, and habit degradation. However, overfishing poses the most significant threat. The US National Marine Fisheries Service 1999 Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Tunas, Swordfish, and Sharks sets bag limits for recreational fishing and quotas for commercial fishing. While sharks of the species grow quickly, the age at which they breed approximates their maximum lifespan. Sources Burgess, G.H. 2009. Carcharhinus brevipinna. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T39368A10182758. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T39368A10182758.enCapape, C.; Hemida, F.; Seck, A.A.; Diatta, Y.; Guelorget, O. Zaouali, J. (2003). Distribution and reproductive biology of the spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Muller and Henle, 1841) (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae). Israel Journal of Zoology. 49 (4): 269–286. doi:10.1560/DHHM-A68M-VKQH-CY9FCompagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. pp. 466–468. ISBN 92-5-101384-5.Dosay-Akbulut, M. (2008). The phylogenetic relationship within the genus Carcharhinus. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331 (7): 500–509. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2008.04.001Fowler, S.L.; Cavanagh, R.D.; Camhi, M.; Burgess, G.H.; Cailliet, G.M.; Fordham, S.V.; Simpfendorfer, C.A. Musick, J.A. (2005). Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Sta tus of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 106–109, 287–288. ISBN 2-8317-0700-5.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Religion Is An Definition Of Religion - 1575 Words

Generally, religion is defined as a set of organized beliefs connected to the cause, purpose and nature of the universe. Although there isn’t an exact definition of religion, one usually tends to describe it according to his or her culture and background. At the heart of most religions, a God(s) is (are) the source of power and greatness through which all things are manifest. God(s) are typically believed to be omnipresent and ubiquitous, a ephemeral being that is there during struggle and depression, success and happiness, pleasure and pain. The main objective in believing and following a God(s) is to receive a better after life, to allay the fear that life is a terminal flicker within a geological timeframe in which a human being’s existence is a meaningless moment. The adherence to moral actions and feelings are usually what lead one to a greater afterlife or heaven, a term used to describe the imaginary place where spirit and God meet. On the flipside, immoral deeds and actions are judged by God and his from his all loving nature, he has the power to condemn a person to a terrifying after life or to a â€Å"hell† consisting of eternal suffering within a blazing inferno if the acts end up to be too immoral. Christianity, the number one most popular religion in the world with roughly 2.1 billion followers, was formed in 33st C.E. Originating in Palestine, Christianity was developed from the tenets of Judaism from the life of Christ. In general, Christians believe in God asShow MoreRelatedThe Work Definitions Of Religion2779 Words   |  12 Pagesworking definitions of religion. The working definitions provided by Émile Durkheim, William James, and Paul Tillich, all neglect to holistically capture the observable, individual, and social effect religion delivers to an individual and his community. It was not until the end of the twentieth century, when Clifford Geertz and Gerald James Larson provided a working definition that associated religion with the concept of culture. Additionally, Geertz and Larson further developed the definition of religionRead MoreThe Definition Of Christianity Is A Religion1391 Words   |  6 Pages The definition of Christianity is a religion that teaches about who Jesus is and why he was sent to save us. I believe being a Christian consists of loving inward, outward and upward. I as that I never knew who God was growing up, but I always knew he existed. I am a courageous Christian woman that has been a Christian for almost three years now. I know now what it is like to live for God’s glory. Before I became a Christian I was a very lost soul. What I mean by this is, I lived a very hatefulRead MoreSociological and Anthropological Definition of Religion1333 Words   |  5 PagesExplanation of how sociologist and anthropologists define religion Throughout the years, various anthropologists have developed definitions for religion. Emilie Durkheim was one of the first and many sociologists who studied the structure of religion and tried to define its’ function. Durkheim stated that â€Å"a religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden -- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral communityRead MoreThe Problem of Definition of Religion Essay2618 Words   |  11 PagesThe Problem of Definition of Religion The study of religion is problematic. There are so many dimensions to religion (belief, practice, experience, knowledge and consequences) that it is impossible to provide a conclusive definition. Most sociologists do not believe in God. 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Many different academic scholars and writers have their own beliefs andRead MoreThe Definition of Religion Can Be Academically Useful815 Words   |  3 Pagesprehistoric societies easy models to help prove their beliefs and u nderstandings on religion. In addition to this, another reason as to why prehistoric humanity was so important to religious philosophers was because early theorist did not have the field or study of religion. Early theorists where classified as anthropologists and sociologists in most cases; and thus tended to bring in parts of their study into religion. Anthropologists study prehistoric civilizations, they were very comfortable withRead MoreDefining Religion1029 Words   |  5 PagesWhen searching for the meaning of the term religion one most go a long way in making an extensive search to actually form a definition that can fit such a broad word. There is no one definition that can satisfy all religions and remain true to all religions throughout its answer. There are many different views and definitions of the word and it is very hard to come up with a reasonable definition that sums such a massive expression up. Religion when used as a single word is almost impossible to defineR ead MoreReligion And Its Impact On Religion Essay1199 Words   |  5 Pageswe have defined religion as a system of believes particularly belief in a God or gods. The problem with this is that we categorize too much under the umbrella of religion that does not fit under this category; as Craig Martin argues in, A Critical Introduction to the Study of Religion, â€Å"The colloquial use groups together dissimilar things. All of those things we call ‘religions’ simply do not share a set of core properties†. We tend to define Catholicism when asked to define religion. Many very educated


THE IMPACT OF MONEY SUPPLY ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In the critical observation of the recent Nigerian economic position, there has been a great divergence between the rate at which money is supplied and the exact impact it has on the general price level, which results in inflation and deflation on one hand, and the output growth (productivity) on the other hand. Although, it had occurred to our mind that Nigerian monetary policy continues to aim at achieving single digit inflation, a stable Naira, increase in domestic production and a stock of foreign exchange reserves equivalent of at least six months of current imports, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)†¦show more content†¦Otherwise, we had found the repeated cases in which people seem to have so little money that they were unable or certainly reluctant to buy everything that could be produced. As a result, price fell, profits vanished, production shrank and unemployment spread. We had also found frequent examples of the opposite situation, w here the inflation spiral in which the quality of money outruns the supply of goods and people would lose through being outbid in the market place. The whole mystery is centered on the fact that commercial bank credit is a major factor contributing to the increased quantity of money in circulation in the Nigerian economy. But since the total stock of money determines the economy level to an optional, the monetary policy target is to bring the economy back to a desired optimum, but the extent to which it achieves that, is however another issue. The popular notion is that most monetary policies had failed in Nigeria due to wrong implementation of the policies or due to the uncooperative attitude of the banks before the consolidation of banks in Nigerian economy in January, 2001. Therefore, in discussing the concept of money supply and its impacts, two other issues often come to our mind namely, the state of inflationary pressure and the unemployment rate. According to the monetari st â€Å"inflation is everywhere a monetary phenomenon.† Their view was that increase in money supply in an economy,Show MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Macroeconomic Indicators On Economic Growth On A Petrol Dollar Economy Essay1391 Words   |  6 PagesTHE EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN A PETROL-DOLLAR ECONOMY: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE 1. Introduction The Central Bank of Nigeria Act of 1958(CBN) vested the monetary policy powers of economic stability on the apex regulatory bank (CBN).Since our independence in 1960,CBN has operated a fixed exchange regime which was at various times was at par with the British pounds and later the United States Dollar. 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Driverless Trucks Could Change Australia †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Driverless Trucks Could Change Australia? Answer: Introduction This article is about one most exciting technological advances that could have been responsible for ripping or tearing the community apart. This article talks about the invention of automated or driverless trucks. This article was released on the month of May, 2016. Australia is a nation where around two hundred billion dollar is generated by the transport sector (NewsComAu, 2017). The economy is dependent on this sector. This article says that the economy and the community will be devastated if driverless trucks are introduced. TechCrunchs prediction says that automating trucks cannot make people jobless. The truck drivers will lose their jobs and this technology will also affect the roadsides businesses. The caf employees, attendants of petrol stations and other service stations that are dependent on the economy of roadside will lose their jobs. The rate of unemployed people in Australia will rise. The future generations will get affected very badly. This essay takes an ethical app roach to describe this advanced technological invention. It finds out whether this act is ethical in terms of four main theories of ethics (Arntzenius, 2014). The four theories are called Virtue Ethics, Deontology theory, Utilitarianism theory and also Contract Theory. Utilitarianism Theory The theory of Utilitarianism deals with utility. In this context utility does not mean usage. Here it stands for happiness or pleasure. This theory says that if any type of act or policy generates happiness or pleasure among a large number of people then that policy or act is absolutely ethical (Arntzenius, 2014). This act of introducing driverless or automated trucks is supposed to take away the jobs of all the truck drivers. It will also take away the jobs of the people who used to serve in the cafes, attendants of petrol stations and other service stations that are dependent on the economy of roadside. The rate of unemployed people in Australia will rise. The future generations will get affected very badly. This essay takes an ethical approach to describe this advanced technological invention. If so many people lose their jobs then there will be economical crisis because a major part of the economy is dependent on the transport sector or industry. The community or society of Austr alia will be torn apart (Vaughn, 2015). Technology cannot be without any fault. So this technology will not be totally safe. This will lead to a chaotic situation in the country. Automated trucks will not be able to take crucial decisions. Suppose a group of people are coming in front and there is a single person walking on the other side then it will be difficult for an automated system to react. Utilitarianism theory would prefer to give happiness to most of the people and sacrifice the life of the passengers. This is an ethical issue (Niebuhr, 2013). The introduction of driverless trucks will make people jobless and this will bring dissatisfaction among the people of the society. According to Utilitarianism an act is ethically correct if it gives happiness to most people (Crimmins, 2017). Therefore according to this theory this act is not ethical. Deontology Theory This theory of Deontology says that if a person carries out their duties properly then the act is ethical. This theory does not depend on the happiness of the people or any type of contract (Playford, Roberts Playford, 2015). Here duty and ethics are related (Chen Schonger, 2017). Automated trucks will have inbuilt programs and it is the duty of those programs to incorporate safety features in it. This will protect the pedestrians as well as the passengers. This theory says humans are ends in themselves (Lazar, 2017). Introducing driverless trucks will not value the presence of human beings as most of the people who used to drive trucks would lose their jobs. The level of unemployment will increase. According to this theory this act is not ethical. Virtue Theory This theory deals with the moral values of an individual. A human does right things based on their moral values (Van Hooft, 2014). Elon Musk of Tesla said that introducing this technology would improve the life of the people. The quality of life will improve (NewsComAu, 2017). That shows that the motive behind the invention of this type of technological advancement is not wrong. Their motive was to develop the society and decrease their work load. This theory does not focus on the consequences or obligations of the people. The intention is taken into account. Therefore it can be said that from the point of view of Virtue Ethics this act is completely ethical. Contract Theory This theory of Contract states that when a person has a contract or agreement then he or she tends to become ethical in nature. The presence of a contract promotes the sense of ethics among the people. This helps to develop a better society (Fried, 2015). The automated trucks will have algorithms that imitate ethical behaviours. Every vehicle developer signs a contract for the safety issue. The economy of Australia is highly dependent on the transport sector. TechCrunchs prediction says that automating trucks cannot make people jobless. Therefore this theory says that the contract present will take care of the ethical factor of a driverless truck. Hence according to the Contract Theory the introduction of automated or driverless trucks is ethical. Conclusion It can be concluded from this essay that this advanced technology of driverless trucks will cause devastation in the country. The truck drivers and all the related businesses will be affected badly. The unemployment level will increase. There will be chaos in the society. The caf employees, attendants of petrol stations and other service stations that are dependent on the economy of roadside will lose their jobs. The rate of unemployed people in Australia will rise. The future generations will get affected very badly. This essay gave an ethical approach in order to describe this advanced technological invention. It found out whether this act is ethical in terms of four main theories of ethics .The four theories are called Virtue Ethics, Deontology theory, Utilitarianism theory and also Contract Theory. According to Utilitarianism and Deontology theory this act is unethical and according to Virtue Ethics and Contract theory it is an ethical act. References Arntzenius, F. (2014). Utilitarianism, decision theory and eternity.Philosophical Perspectives,28(1), 31-58. Chen, D. L., Schonger, M. (2017). Social preferences or sacred values? theory and evidence of deontological motivations. Crimmins, J. E. (Ed.). (2017).The Bloomsbury encyclopedia of utilitarianism. Bloomsbury Publishing. Dewey, J. (2016).Ethics. Read Books Ltd. Fried, C. (2015).Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. Oxford University Press, USA. Lazar, S. (2017). Deontological Decision Theory and Agent-Centered Options.Ethics,127(3), 579-609. NewsComAu. (2017). The jobs killer is coming. Retrieved 4 September 2017, from Niebuhr, R. (2013).Moral man and immoral society: A study in ethics and politics. Westminster John Knox Press.